About Sociology:

Sociology is a branch of science that uses scientific methods for experimental research and critical analysis to improve knowledge for human social structure and activities. And sometimes to use that knowledge for purposeful purposes like social welfare activities. Sociology
studies social institutions and human relationships. Its subject matter ranges from the micro-level of analysis to the macro level. As for as concern about introduction of Sociology, It’s a wide discipline in terms of methods and subject matter. It primarily focuses on social relation culture, stratification of the society, social communication, and deviancy.
As the human social structure changed and expanded, sociology expanded its focus because of the evolution and change of the social structure. Sociology extended its attention to other disciplines.


For example the study of Economics, Religion, Social Deprivation, and Health. Even the role of social interaction social relationships and social activities in the creation of scientific knowledge.

The range of scientific techniques and methods has also been majorly stretched. And the decades of 1970 and 1980s brought a very humanistic and interruptive attitude to the study of cultural patterns in sociology. Sociology has both quantitative and qualitative approaches in the field of social research. Hence sociology is such a broad discipline that includes all aspects of society and human social life.

Definitions of Sociology:

Different scholars and sociologists give their opinion about introduction of sociology in their distinct ways.
Max Weber: “Sociology is a science of social action and causal explanation”.

Max Weber one of the most prominent sociologist explains that sociology emphasizes the study of social action of the individuals in a human society. He considers the sociology as sciences of social actions. For example human action becomes social in social environment and how they influence others. Different types of social actions are studies by Max Weber in studying sociology.

Simmel: “define Sociology in term of the study of human relationships”.

According to the definition explained by Siimmel sociology focuses on the study of human relationships. How humans establish relationships in the society with one another’s. Accordingly sociology emphasizes the maintenance of the social relationships with in groups of humans. These groups can be in the form of families, working groups and many other primary and secondary groups.

Durkheim major contributions to the subject of sociology was that Durkheim distinguish sociology and other fields of social sciences for example economics psychology history and similar to others, he defines and manage the arena of sociology as academic discipline. Durkheim defines sociology in a very unique sense.

Durkheim: “defines Sociology in terms of the study of social facts and institutions”.

This definition implies that sociology study social facts of the social life as well as societal institution.  How an institution works in a society and makes some contributions for the society. Durkheim social facts means in every society there are some facts which control the behavior of the individuals

One of Durkheim’s major contributions was to help define and establish the field of sociology as an academic discipline. Durkheim distinguished sociology from philosophy, psychology, economics, and other social science disciplines by arguing that society was an entity of its own.

Ken Browne: “defines sociology as; A systematic study of human social life and their groups in advanced

As mentioned above in the definition explained by Ken Browne that sociology as academic discipline investigates the human social life, groups of human individuals in modern settings. Considering the humans and their social life as subjects matter sociology deeply insight into the different aspects of human social life and various forms of groups in social conditions

John J Macionis: “Sociology is the systematic study of human society”

John J Macionis in his book introduction to sociology defines sociology in a very systematic way. According to the definition systematic study of human society, it refers that sociology use scientific technique’s to study the human society and social process. These techniques are used in sociological researches and to study the pattern of human societies and communities. Different scientific tools are used in studying the subject matter of sociology.

Sociology and Society

Origin and Evolution of Sociology;

Introduction of sociology cannot be completed without probing it’s origin. Sociology begins with the observations of ancient times, situations, and the experiences of the
traditional people. Earlier Ibn Khaldun had laid the foundation of sociology and named it illmul Imran.
Sociology emerges as a special discipline, by the work of August Comte, who is considered the father of
sociology. August Comet 1836 Introduces sociology as a subject called social physics.
The advancement of sociology began in the 18th century. With the special attention and work of various
Muslim thinkers like al kundi imam, Ghazali, etc. Some influential European scholars Max Weber
Spencer, Emile Durkheim, and many others are those whose efforts made sociology distinctive. Later
sociology became the queen of social sciences.
Every aspect of human social life falls in the circle of sociology. The focus of sociology is human social life
and the study of social events occurring around the world
Sociological knowledge is practical in finding the solution to different problems of society. Directed the
solution of social problems by explaining different social and cultural conditions

What Sociology Study?

An in-depth study of human beings and their behavioral pattern is the major concern of sociology. And
sociology also studies almost all zones of the social world. How people establish relationships with each
other and create bonding, how they mutually interact and collaborate in their daily lives. Sum of all
these activities together forms a complete society which is the basic study unit of sociology. Sociologists
mostly focus on group behaviors, not individual studies. Sociology meditates people’s interests and
conflicts among themselves due to the scarcity of resources in a particular society.

Subject Matter of Sociology;

Sociology is the study of human societies, so all behaviors and activities belong to humans’ social life.
The subject matter of sociology can be described as
Sociology is
The logical study of society
Study of human social interactions
Study of the behavioral pattern of individuals in a group setting
Study of social processes of the society social system
Study of communities and social groups
Study of social problems of the societies
Study of social actions and their consequences
Study of social institutions and their roles

The changing interest of human beings social and change in various spheres of life need a thorough
study for each aspect. It is sociology which covers an extensive area of social life covering a nearly bulky
number of areas. Particular areas of examination include different phases of social life. Structure and
classification of the society, institutional setup family Religion Economic field’s state and other pivotal
institution of the society. Societal problems like deviance, poverty, exploitation, and other important
issues in the range of sociological interest. Studying social movements and collective behavior like mob
crowed and public behavior all are chief concerns of sociological discipline.

Nature of Sociology;

Following are the Key Characteristics of Sociology
Sociology belongs to a class of social science
Sociology is independent
It’s a categorical subject
Focusing on groups rather than individual
The area of sociology is universal, not specific
Sociology is an academic discipline

Introduction of Two Major Types of Sociology:

Quantitative Sociology and Qualitative Sociology:

Quantitative Sociology:

Quantitative sociology is based on statistical investigation to comprehend empirical evidence and
modern trends. Use scientific approaches and statistical shreds of evidence to satisfy research needs.it
represents results in the form of numeric facts which are tested statistically.

Qualitative Sociology:

The second major type of sociology is qualitative sociology. It studies qualitative patterns in society.
Qualitative sociology is concerned with rich details of the subject and a more authentic picture of a
study unit. Try to discover all the directions of matter in a very deep scenario. It uses various qualitative
methods to discover rich facts of sociological knowledge and to prove theoretical facts. Early sociologists
were interested in in-depth studies about the different sociological phenomena. Qualitative students
were their main tools using qualitative approaches like personal interviews and observations.
Quantitative patterns in society can guide a more in-depth analysis of actual patterns in natural settings.

In short Word:

In sum, sociology has distinctive perspectives on the social world through its scientific knowledge.
Sociology is providing new trends and criticizes the old ones. To sort out many social issues of great
importance sociology offer a range of research techniques. Its knowledge is applied to many domains of
social life and also in finding a solution to particular problems. As sociology is a thrilling field it’s
providing wide opportunities in building a profession.


Where sociology was started firstly?

Sociology firstly emerged in 1838 and Sociology as academic department started its journey in1892 at the University of Chicago By Albion W.Small,

Why sociology is a science?

As sociology is scientific study of human society and use scientific tools in inquiry and investigations. That’s why called is science

What sociology majors do?

Major purpose of the sociology is to study human behavior and interactions of individual’s society’s cultures and organizations. And also study social problems and their causes existing in a society  

Who gave sociology its name?  

Father of sociology Auguste Comte gave sociology its name

How sociology emerged?

After the French revolution and industrial revolution there was need a science to study the positive and negative impact theses revolutions. From this ground sociology emerged

Are sociology degrees useful?

Sociology is a broad discipline both as a knowledge and discipline. Its knowledge provides human beings opportunity to understand society, culture social institutions and its social problems. As discipline sociology provide career opportunity like social welfare officers, parole and probation’s officers and many more administrative jobs.

Which sociology book is best for ups c?

John j macionis book of introduction to sociology